|Title||Knowledge Systems Theme Fact Sheet|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Haward M., O'Toole K.|
We define the operating environment for sciences as the dynamic and cumulative effects of a variety of elements (including actors, institutions, stakes, issues, relationships, and objects) on the interactions between scientific knowledge and decision-making. To mediate between ‘issues’ and ‘stakes’ requires some sort of ‘boundary spanning’, which embodies a diverse range of possible practices.