Cicin-Sain B., Knecht. R.W. 1998. Integrated coastal and ocean management: Concepts and practices..


Presents the concepts of integrated coastal and ocean management.

Geographic Focus: 


Key Findings: 

Improved integration of global and local coastal management practices is prominently featured in Agenda 21, and is a core component of sustainable development. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) is a conscious management process which stresses the interrelationships within coastal and ocean uses and the associated biophysical systems. The process of ICM sets out to avoid fragmented, single-sector management so that all activities function to collectively achieve agreed goals. Coastal zones are a contested space, characterised by diverse definitions, values, uses, biophysical conditions and impacts. It is now widely recognised that ICM includes diverse participatory processes that embody multi-disciplinary approaches and experiences for successful design and implementation.


Carefully designed monitoring programmes are an important element for successful implementation of ICM. Information from these evaluation processes in turn becomes a central component for adaptive learning. ICM is not “one size fits all”, but requires flexibility to adequately address the complexity, uncertainty and dynamism of the systems being managed. ICM deals with conflicts in coastal areas through discovering mutually beneficial interactions, with social learning becoming increasingly cited as a vehicle for this process.